["$ struct..H$ ","!kstruct and class parameters","OINHFEI4 type declarations: C#FNNstruct EI4StructN{NOI*Ib[] _IH1;NOI*Ib[] _IH2;NOI*EI4Struct(Ib[] IH1, Ib[] IH2)NO{NOOthis._IH1I_IH1;NOOthis._IH2I_IH2;NO}N}NNI9EI4ClassN{NOI*Ib[] _IH1;NOI*Ib[] _IH2;NOI*EI4Class(Ib[] IH1, Ib[] IH2)NO{NOOthis._IH1I_IH1;NOOthis._IH2I_IH2;NO}N}FNNI8I7III9I+N{NOI-IZMICStruct(EI4Struct eI4)NO{NOOI@ eI4._IH1[0];NO}NNOI-IZMICClass(EI4Class eI4)NO{NOOI@ eI4._IH1[0];NO}NNOI$O{FNOO//NOOIcCIM a IXIL with IH 5.NOO//NOOFIb[] IL1I_IXIb[1];NOOIL1[0]I_5;NOOI%H--- IN I/ assigned ---H);FNNOO//NOOIcCIM IXstruct and class.NOO//NOOFEI4Struct eI41I_IXFEI4StructF(IL1, IL1);NOOEI4Class eI42I_IXFEI4ClassF(IL1, IL1);FNNOO//NOOIcUse struct and then I9in mIC as parameters.NOO//NOOFIZIH1I_MICStruct(eI41);NOOI%IH1)IIOOIZIH2I_MICClass(eI42);NOOI%IH2);FNNOO//NOOIcChange the IH of the IL I/.NOO//NOOFIL1[0]I_10;NOOI%H--- IN I/ changed ---H)IIOOIZIH3I_MICStruct(eI41);NOOI%IH3)IIOOIZIH4I_MICClass(eI42);NOOI%IH4);NO}N}NNFNN--- IN I/ assigned ---N5N5N--- IN I/ changed ---N10N10FData types tested: C#FNNstruct AN{NOI*Ib[] a;NOI*Ib[] b;N}NNI9BN{NOI*Ib[] a;NOI*Ib[] b;N}NNFDI' used to store objects: C#FNNvar d1I_IXDI'<I?, A>();Nvar d2I_IXDI'<I?, B>();Nd1.I]HaH, IXA());Nd2.I]HaH, IXB())IIFCode testedISloop: C#FNNA a1;NI[d1.TryGetIF(HaH, out a1))N{NOvar xI_a1.a;N}NNB b1;NI[d2.TryGetIF(HaH, out b1))N{NOvar xI_b1.a;N}NNFResultsFNN100000000 iterations tested.NAlso testedISreverse order (I9then struct).NNA) Struct used: F3721 msFNB) Class used: F3595 msF [faster]F3 fieldsFNNStruct: F3907 msFNClass: F3733 msFNNF4 fieldsFNNStruct: F4803 msFNClass: F3634 msF","A,CBECBCBC*aCC|F( 69766},C(CXBPFFF8(CP8F4A*CCX","Struct, class."," Structs have different performance from classes. They are used as parameters in methods\u2014this influences the time required to call a method. We test struct parameters.","Example."," Here are two type declarations. The first declaration is a struct type, which by definition inherits from the System.ValueType object. Internally, the struct has only one physical unit, containing two reference values. ","Second, you can see the class declared, which contains two reference value members.","When used, the two types will be stored in different memory locations (stack and heap).","Example 2."," We can use the struct as a parameter. Here we create an array that is stored as a field in both the struct and class instances. The MethodStruct function receives a struct parameter. The MethodClass function receives a class parameter. ","MethodStruct."," This method receives a strongly-typed value of ExampleStruct type. When you call this method, the struct and all its fields will be physically copied onto the function stack. ","The runtime can take significant time to copy structs when used as method parameters or even locals.","MethodClass"," receives a strongly-typed value containing a reference to an ExampleClass object. In the C# language, an object is the actual data. A reference is the variable that points to that data. The parameter here is a reference. ","Reference values are basically pointers and are very lightweight and efficient. Instantiating objects is more expensive.","Benchmark."," For the benchmark, we test the Dictionary class's TryGetValue method. When you call methods on a collection like Dictionary, at least one set of parameters will be copied. Large value types such as structs can slow down method calls. ","Dictionary ","dictionary","We find"," that the performance of using structs as parameters continues to degrade with three and four fields. The class parameter, because it does not become larger, does not degrade as much. ","This means that when the struct increases the number of fields, each method call such as TryGetValue becomes more expensive.","Discussion."," A common optimization you can do with structs in your programs is to remove them and turn them into classes. When developing complex programs, you will usually extract methods. When you call methods with structs, performance degrades. ","I recommend only using structs when the design of your application is complete.","Before adding custom structs, be sure to perform benchmarking that proves structs are beneficial.","Summary."," Structs and classes can be used as parameters in C# programs. We noted how structs are implemented when you use them as parameters, reviewing value types. We also saw a benchmark of how structs perform in methods."]

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