# Python Map Examples (Use Lambda on Each Element)

Use the map built-in function. Map applies a lambda to each element.
Map. A cold wave comes over the land. All things freeze at once. A function (the freeze) affects all elements of the terrain (the lake, the trees).
With map, we apply a method to a collections. Map requires fewer statements and variables. It is declarative. We tell the program the result we want, not how to compute it.
An example. Here we apply map() to a small list. As the first argument to map, we pass a lambda expression. This lambda increments each element it receives.

Then: The map method passes all elements of the list to the lambda. It does this one at a time.

Result: We receive an iterable collection containing the elements of the list. All elements have had 1 added to their values.

Tip: The lambda is not required. A def-function may be passed to the map built-in method.

Python program that uses map # An input list. items = [1, 2, 3] # Apply lambda to all elements with map. for r in map(lambda x: x + 1, items): print(r) Output 2 3 4
Iterator. Map returns an iterator. We often must convert this back into the desired collection type. Here, we use map on a list. We then convert the result of map back into a list.

Caution: This code creates a copy of the original list. Both exist in memory. This may be inefficient if you want to modify a list.

Python program that creates list with map # Original list. items = [7, 8, 9] # Map into a new list. items2 = list(map(lambda z: z * 2, items)) # Display two lists. print(items) print(items2) Output [7, 8, 9] [14, 16, 18]
Sum, predicate. How many times in a collection is a condition true? A predicate method is one that returns true or false based on its argument.

Here: We use map with a predicate method. Then we use sum() to count true results of the predicate.

Lambda: We use a lambda expression: this one receives a string parameter. It calls the startswith method.

And: They are counted by sum. Three of the four strings start with the substring "San" in the list.

Python program that sums result of map # Cities. names = ["San Jose", "San Francisco", "Santa Fe", "Houston"] # Sum result of map. count = sum(map(lambda s: s.startswith("San"), names)) # Count of cities starting with San. print(count) Output 3
Two iterables. More than one iterable can be used as arguments to map. Here we use two lists in a map call. The two lists have an unequal number of elements.

However: Map does not care. It proceeds as far as it can, which is three elements.

Tip: The lambda here accepts two arguments. This is required when using two iterables.

Info: The first argument is the first list's element. And the second argument is from the other list.

Python program that uses two lists in map # Two input lists. a = [1, 2, 3] b = [2, 3, 4, 5] # Multiply elements of two lists together. result = list(map(lambda x, y: x * y, a, b)) # Three elements are present. print(result) Output [2, 6, 12]
Performance. In tests, map tends to be slower than an equivalent for-loop. There is some overhead to invoking a method and constructing a map result.

In this test: I found that map was about twice as slow. The loops add 20 to each element in a list, and sum the total.

Tip: Map() may be best reserved for situations where the clarity of code, and not its speed, is more important.

Python program that times map, for-loop import time numbers = [5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40] print(time.time()) # Version 1: map. for c in range(0, 1000000): sum = 0 for i in map(lambda v: v + 20, numbers): sum += i print(time.time()) # Version 2: for-loop. for c in range(0, 1000000): sum = 0 for v in numbers: sum += (v + 20) print(time.time()) Output 1411254268.364547 1411254271.106704 map: 2.742 s 1411254272.373777 for-loop: 1.267 s
Solutions that use map can become complex. Sometimes, using statements in a loop is simpler. In programming, "advanced" code is often inferior to understandable code.
Simpler things, like for-loops, are often easier to keep correct. Map meanwhile has benefits in programs. Entire programs can be designed around it.
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