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Python Int ExampleUse the int built-in to convert floats and strings to ints. Call isdigit to avoid ValueErrors.
Int. In Python we use int() to convert values. The int keyword is not used to declare values like in other languages. Instead it converts strings and floats.
For floats, int will always truncate the number (remove the part after the decimal place). So 1.9 will become 1.1. For strings, only valid strings can be converted without an error.
Numbers
Numbers example. Here we use int() on some floating-point numbers. We see that the part after the decimal place is removed—the fractional value is discarded.
Note No rounding actually occurs with int(). Instead it just truncates the value.
Python program that uses int
# Use int to convert floats to integers. # ... The value is always rounded down (truncated). value = 1.5 result = int(value) print(value, "INT =", result) value = 1.9 result = int(value) print(value, "INT =", result) value = -1.9 result = int(value) print(value, "INT =", result)
1.5 INT = 1 1.9 INT = 1 -1.9 INT = -1
Parse string. Now let's use int() on a string value. If the string contains only digits like "123" then we can transform the string into a number. We test it in an if-statement.
If
Convert
Python program that uses int on string
# Convert a string containing an integer to an int. data = "123" result = int(data) print(data, "INT =", result) # The result is an integer value. if result == 123: print(True)
123 INT = 123 True
Int error. With int we must be careful not to try to parse a string that does not contain an integer value. A ValueError will occur, and this is disruptive.
Error
Python program that causes int error
# This fails as the string is not in a valid format. data = "cat" result = int(data)
Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\programs\file.py", line 6, in <module> result = int(data) ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: 'cat'
Isdigit. With isdigit() we can test a string for an integer value before converting it to an int with int(). This prevents the ValueError on invalid strings.
Here We have an array of string literals. Some of them are valid ints like 123 and 0, but some like "cat" and "bird" are not.
Result We use isdigit to test strings to see if they can be parsed with int. Then we parse only the ones that are valid.
Python program that uses isdigit with int
values = ["123", "cat", "bird", "12.34", "0"] # Loop over strings. for v in values: # See if string is all digits. if v.isdigit(): # Parse string with int. result = int(v) print(v, "INT =", result) else: # String will fail parsing. print(v, "ISDIGIT =", False)
123 INT = 123 cat ISDIGIT = False bird ISDIGIT = False 12.34 ISDIGIT = False 0 INT = 0
A summary. Int is an important built-in function in Python. It is not used to specify an integer like 5. But it can convert a string like "5" to 5, or a float like 5.3 to an integer.
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