C# : Collections
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["swrldrtrfrt. XaBXCBST~~}T~~YF6888649664FX/BBCBCEXBCP776FXCBP76FZCBXCB[CPF8*BCXS}T~~}T~~","HashSet."," This is an optimized set collection. It helps eliminates duplicate strings or elements in an array. It is a set that hashes its contents.","With HashSet,"," we have a simple syntax for taking the union of elements in a set. This is performed in its constructor. More complex methods can be used on the HashSet. ","Constructor ","constructor","This program"," contains a source array that contains several duplicated strings. It eliminates duplicate strings in the array. The program calls the HashSet constructor. ","Note: ","This internally calls the UnionWith method to eliminate the duplications. ToArray transforms the HashSet into a new array.","ToArray ","toarray","ins","class","adsbygoogle","data-ad-client","ca-pub-4712093147740724","data-ad-slot","6227126509","data-ad-format","auto","ins","class","adsbygoogle","data-ad-client","ca-pub-4712093147740724","data-ad-slot","6227126509","data-ad-format","auto","Based on:"," .NET 4.6\n\n","C# program that uses HashSet on duplicates","\n\nusing System;\nusing System.Collections.Generic;\nusing System.Linq;\n\nclass Program\n{\n static void Main()\n {","\n // Input array that contains three duplicate strings.\n ","string[] array1 =\n {\n ","\"cat\"",",\n ","\"dog\"",",\n ","\"cat\"",",\n ","\"leopard\"",",\n ","\"tiger\"",",\n ","\"cat\"","\n };","\n\n // Display the array.\n ","Console.WriteLine(string.Join(","\",\"",", array1));","\n\n // Use HashSet constructor to ensure unique strings.\n ","var hash = new ","HashSet<string>","(array1);","\n\n // Convert to array of strings again.\n ","string[] array2 = hash.ToArray();","\n\n // Display the resulting array.\n ","Console.WriteLine(string.Join(","\",\"",", array2));\n }\n}\n\n","Output","\n\ncat,dog,cat,leopard,tiger,cat\ncat,dog,leopard,tiger","Notes, above example."," The input array contains six strings (four unique). The string \"cat\" is repeated three times. The HashSet constructor eliminates the non-unique elements.","Notes, continued."," The HashSet constructor receives a single parameter, which must implement the IEnumerable<string> generic interface. The constructor takes the union of elements. ","Generic Class ","generic","String Literal ","string-literal","Also: ","The program displays string arrays onto the console or as single strings using the string.Join static method.","Static Method ","static","Tip: ","Join receives the result of the ToArray extension method, which was invoked on the HashSet instance.","Join ","string-join","Overlaps."," This method returns true or false. It tests to see if any of the HashSet's elements are contained in the IEnumerable argument's elements. Only one equal element is required. ","IEnumerable ","ienumerable","Next: ","The element 3 is in the HashSet. This means Overlaps returns true for array2, but false for array3.","C# program that uses Overlaps","\n\nusing System;\nusing System.Collections.Generic;\n\nclass Program\n{\n static void Main()\n {\n int[] array1 = { 1, 2, 3 };\n int[] array2 = { 3, 4, 5 };\n int[] array3 = { 9, 10, 11 };\n\n HashSet<int> set = new HashSet<int>(array1);\n bool a = set.","Overlaps","(array2);\n bool b = set.","Overlaps","(array3);","\n\n // Display results.\n ","Console.WriteLine(a);\n Console.WriteLine(b);\n }\n}\n\n","Output","\n\nTrue\nFalse","SymmetricExceptWith."," HashSet has advanced set logic. SymmetricExceptWith changes HashSet so that it contains only the elements in one or the other collection\u2014not both. ","Tip: ","This example shows the use of the var-keyword. This simplifies the syntax of the HashSet declaration statement.","Var ","var","C# program that uses SymmetricExceptWith","\n\nusing System;\nusing System.Collections.Generic;\nusing System.Linq;\n\nclass Program\n{\n static void Main()\n {\n char[] array1 = { 'a', 'b', 'c' };\n char[] array2 = { 'b', 'c', 'd' };\n\n var hash = new HashSet<char>(array1);\n hash.","SymmetricExceptWith","(array2);","\n\n // Write char array.\n ","Console.WriteLine(hash.ToArray());\n }\n}\n\n","Output","\n\nad","Dictionary."," Set logic can also be implemented by using a Dictionary instead of a HashSet. With a Dictionary you must specify a value type. This may lead to more confusing code. ","Also: ","The Dictionary code will have more lines, but performance would be similar. The hash lookup loops are equivalent.","Dictionary ","dictionary","Allocations."," Using Dictionary and HashSet results in allocations on the managed heap. For small source inputs, the HashSet and Dictionary will be slower than simple nested loops. ","But: ","When the source input becomes large with thousands of elements, hashed collections are faster.","Dictionary Lookup Performance ","dictionary-time","Benchmark."," Is there any performance benefit to using HashSet instead of Dictionary? In the C# language, a Dictionary with bool values can work as a set. ","Here: ","We test a HashSet(string) against a Dictionary(string, bool). We add strings as keys and see if those keys exist.","C# program that tests HashSet performance","\n\nusing System;\nusing System.Collections.Generic;\nusing System.Diagnostics;\n\nclass Program\n{\n const int _max = 10000000;\n static void Main()\n {\n var h = new HashSet<string>(StringComparer.Ordinal);\n var d = new Dictionary<string, bool>(StringComparer.Ordinal);\n var a = new string[] { \"a\", \"b\", \"c\", \"d\", \"longer\", \"words\", \"also\" };\n\n var s1 = Stopwatch.StartNew();\n for (int i = 0; i < _max; i++)\n {\n foreach (string s in a)\n {\n h.Add(s);\n h.Contains(s);\n }\n }\n s1.Stop();\n var s2 = Stopwatch.StartNew();\n for (int i = 0; i < _max; i++)\n {\n foreach (string s in a)\n {\n d[s] = true;\n d.ContainsKey(s);\n }\n }\n s2.Stop();\n Console.WriteLine(h.Count);\n Console.WriteLine(d.Count);\n\n Console.WriteLine(((double)(s1.Elapsed.TotalMilliseconds * 1000000) /\n _max).ToString(\"0.00 ns\"));\n Console.WriteLine(((double)(s2.Elapsed.TotalMilliseconds * 1000000) /\n _max).ToString(\"0.00 ns\"));\n Console.Read();\n }\n}\n\n","Results","\n\n7\n7\n","529.99 ns"," HashSet\n","517.05 ns"," Dictionary","Notes, benchmark."," The Dictionary had slightly better performance in this test than did the HashSet. In most tests the Dictionary was faster. ","Dictionary StringComparer Optimization ","dictionary-stringcomparer","Tip: ","My guideline is that Dictionary should be used instead of HashSet in places where advanced HashSet functionality is not needed.","A summary."," HashSet can be applied to elegantly eliminate duplicates in an array. Its constructor takes a union of a collection that implements the IEnumerable generic interface. 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