Divide by Powers of Two (Bitwise Shift)Use right shift to divide by powers of two. Benchmark a performance optimization.
C#
Divide, powers of two. Integers are represented by bits. Division by powers of 2 can be optimized. In C# this change can lead to improved program performance.
Divide Optimization notes. A divisor that is a power of two—such as two, four, eight—can be replaced with a right shift instruction. This uses the >> token in high-level C# code.
Example. This program shows the use of the bitwise shift right operator. The operator is used to shift the bits of an integer one and two places.
Shift
And The program compares the result of these right shift computations to the result of using division.
Next Dividing by 2 is equivalent (in this case) to shifting right one place. Dividing by 4 is equivalent to shifting right two places.
So The input number 5000 is divided by two to result in 2500, and divided by four to result in 1250. using System; class Program { static void Main() { // This program uses division by powers of two and shifts. // ... It shows how dividing by powers of two can be done by shifting right. // ... The input value is determined at runtime. int value = int.Parse("5000"); int value1div = value / 2; int value1shift = value >> 1; Console.WriteLine(value1div); Console.WriteLine(value1shift); int value2div = value / 4; int value2shift = value >> 2; Console.WriteLine(value2div); Console.WriteLine(value2shift); } }
2500 2500 1250 1250
Benchmark. Let's look at a benchmark program written in the C# language. This program tests the performance of the shift right operator versus the performance of the divide by 4 expression.
Result The shift right operator was measurably faster, requiring 0.8 nanoseconds versus the 0.95 nanoseconds for the division.
Note The static variable store instruction (stsfld) is part of this, as the program writes to a static field.
IL
using System; using System.Diagnostics; class Program { static int _temp; const int _max = int.MaxValue; static void Main() { // This program shows using a right shift to divide by 4. // ... It benchmarks this and then regular division. var s1 = Stopwatch.StartNew(); for (int i = 0; i < _max; i++) { _temp = i >> 2; } s1.Stop(); var s2 = Stopwatch.StartNew(); for (int i = 0; i < _max; i++) { _temp = i / 4; } s2.Stop(); Console.WriteLine("{0:0.00} ns", ((s1.Elapsed.TotalMilliseconds * 1000000) / (double)_max)); Console.WriteLine("{0:0.00} ns", ((s2.Elapsed.TotalMilliseconds * 1000000) / (double)_max)); } }
0.80 ns 0.95 ns
Summary. We used the right shift operator to replace the division operator. You can shift to the right one place to divide by two, and shift right two places to divide by four.
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Sam Allen is passionate about computer languages. In the past, his work has been recommended by Apple and Microsoft and he has studied computers at a selective university in the United States.