048852d`C# 2D Array Examples`Allocate, loop over and add to 2D arrays. Iterate over elements with nested for-loops.`array`C# Array Examples, String Arrays`Create and loop over a string array. Access array Length and get elements at indexes.`list`C# List Examples`Create a new List and add elements to it. Loop over its elements with for and foreach.`async`C# Async, Await Examples (Task)`Use async and await keywords, along with a Task. Call an async method with await.`console`C# Console WriteLine (Print)`Call the Console WriteLine method. Print values like ints and strings to the screen.`constructor`C# Constructor Examples`Initialize new objects with constructors. Use the new keyword and overloads.`datatable`C# DataTable Examples`Use DataTable to store data in memory from databases and other data sources.`datetime`C# DateTime Examples`Compute date and time values. Get relative dates and call DateTime constructors and properties.`datetime-format`C# DateTime Format`Review DateTime format patterns. Call ToString with format codes like MMMM, dd and hh.`dictionary`C# Dictionary Examples`Perform fast lookups with string keys. Add elements to Dictionary from System Collections Generic.`enum`C# Enum Examples`Store named and magic constants with enums. Use enums in collections, if and switch.`file`C# File Handling`Learn ways to handle files. Many methods from the System IO namespace are available.`for`C# For Loops`Iterate over numbers with for. Use an index value and start and end ints with for.`foreach`C# Foreach Loop Examples`Loop over elements with the foreach keyword. Compare other loops to foreach.`ienumerable`C# IEnumerable Examples`Use the IEnumerable interface. IEnumerable things can be looped over with foreach.`if`C# if Statement: else if, else`Use the if, else-if and else statements to make logical tests in a method.`indexof`C# IndexOf Examples`Call the IndexOf method. IndexOf returns the first index of specified character or substring.`parse`C# int Parse, TryParse: Convert Strings to Integers`Convert strings into ints with the int Parse and int TryParse methods.`keyvaluepair`C# KeyValuePair Examples`Use KeyValuePair to loop over a Dictionary with foreach. KeyValuePair has 2 member fields.`keyword`C# Keywords`Review keywords from the C# language. Each keyword has a link to an example and a description.`lambda`C# Lambda Expressions`Use the lambda expression syntax to create function objects. Lambdas have arguments and return values.`linq`C# LINQ Examples: System Linq and Extensions`Use extension methods, and query syntax, from the System Linq namespace.`path`C# Path Examples`Use the Path class. Path handles file locations in a consistent way, resolving common problems.`process`C# Process Start Examples`Create a Process to start external EXEs. Include the System Diagnostics namespace and call Process Start.`property`C# Property Examples (get, set)`Make properties with the get and set keywords. A property is a method that gets or sets a value.`random`C# Random Number Examples`Get random numbers with the Random class. Random has a Next method and can be used as a field.`reflection`C# Reflection Examples`Learn about the System Reflection namespace. Use FieldInfo, and call GetMethod and GetProperties.`regex`C# Regex Match Examples: Regular Expressions`Use the Regex class and Regex Match. Review features from System Text RegularExpressions.`duplicates`C# Remove Duplicates From List`Eliminate duplicate elements from a List with Distinct, HashSet, or for-loops. Benchmark the methods on Lists.`replace`C# Replace String Examples`Use the Replace method to change all instances of one substring to another. Get the modified string.`sort`C# Sort Examples: Arrays and Lists`Sort arrays using Array Sort and Lists with Sort. Review the performance of sorting.`split`C# Split String Examples`Use the string Split method. Call Split with arguments to separate on newlines, spaces and words.`static`C# Static Method, Class and Constructor`Use the static keyword. Create static methods, static classes and static constructors.`string`C# String`Explore string methods: create, search and change strings with built-in code.`format`C# String Format`Insert values into a string with string Format. Specify percentages, decimals and padding.`string-switch`C# String Switch Examples`Use a switch statement on a string for improved performance. String literal cases can be tested.`substring`C# Substring Examples`Use the Substring method with start and length ints. Substring gets parts of strings.`switch`C# Switch Examples`Use a switch statement to branch on a constant in an efficient way. Switch on value types and strings.`tuple`C# Tuple Examples`Create tuples to store immutable data. A tuple has multiple fields of different types.`while`C# While Loop Examples`Loop over numbers and indexes with while. This syntax can be used for infinite loops.038342d-go`Golang 2D Slices and Arrays`Use 2D slices and arrays. Nest slices and arrays to create multiple dimensions.`array-go`Golang Array Examples`Use arrays with int and string elements. Iterate over an array with a for-loop.`map-go`Golang Map Examples`Use maps to provide lookups from keys to values. Get values and delete them.`built-in-go`Golang Built In Functions`Review built-in functions in Golang. See examples of how these built-ins are used.`bytes-go`Golang Bytes: Slices and Methods`Use byte slices and the bytes package. Manipulate, test and benchmark byte slices.`const-go`Golang Const, Var Examples: Iota`Use the const and var keywords. Generate constants with the iota enumerator.`csv-go`Golang csv Examples: NewReader and ReadAll`Use the encoding-cvs package. Call NewReader and Read to read records.`flag-go`Golang flag, Command Line Int, String Examples`Use the flag package for command-line arguments. Pass ints and String arguments.`fmt-go`Golang fmt Println, Sprintf: Console Programs`Use the fmt package to write values to the console. Call Println and Sprintf.`for-go`Golang for Loop Examples: Foreach and While`Use the for-loop to iterate through numbers. Look at foreach and while loops.`func-go`Golang Func Examples`Create methods with the func keyword. See arguments and multiple return values.`if-go`Golang If, Else Statements`Use if, else if and else statements to test values. See correct syntax.`json-go`Golang JSON Example: Marshal, Unmarshal`Use the encoding/json library to convert Go objects to JSON. Call Marshal and Unmarshal.`len-go`Golang Len (String Length)`Use the len built-in function to get string lengths. Len supports arrays, slices and maps.`math-go`Golang Math Module: math Abs, Pow`Perform mathematical computations with the math module. Call math Abs and math Pow.`parseint-go`Golang ParseInt Examples: Convert String to Int`Use the strconv package and the ParseInt and Atoi funcs. Convert strings to ints.`rand-go`Golang rand, crypto: Random Number Generators`Use the rand package and generate random numbers. Call rand Int and Seed.`file-go`Golang Read Text File: bufio, ioutil ReadAll Examples`Use bufio, NewScanner, Scan and Text to read the lines of a file. Call ioutil ReadAll.`regexp-go`Golang Regexp Examples: MatchString, MustCompile`Use the regexp package for regular expressions. Call MatchString and compile patterns.`duplicates-go`Golang Remove Duplicates From Slice`Use maps, and slices, to remove duplicate elements from slices of ints and strings.`replace-go`Golang Replace String Examples: Replacer, NewReplacer`Use strings Replace, in the strings package, to modify strings. Call NewReplacer.`slice-go`Golang Slice Examples (append, cap and make)`Use slices to store elements. Call the append, cap and make functions.`sort-go`Golang Sort Slice: Len, Less, Swap in Interface`Use the sort package and sort elements. Invoke the Strings and Sort methods.`split-go`Golang Split Examples (SplitAfter, SplitN)`Use Split from the strings package. Call SplitAfter and SplitN to separate strings.`convert-go`Golang strconv, Convert Int to String`Cast numeric types and convert values to strings. Perform map and slice conversions.`strings-go`Golang Strings`Explore the strings package. The methods in strings create, test and modify string data.`struct-go`Golang Struct Examples: Types and Pointers`Create structs to store fields and methods together. Use the new keyword.`substring-go`Golang Substring Examples (Rune Slices)`Use string slice syntax to take substrings. Take rune slices to handle more characters.`switch-go`Golang Switch Examples: case, break and fallthrough`Use switch, with expressions and case lists, to test variables and return values.`time-go`Golang Time: Now, Parse and Duration`Use the time package to get and modify times. Get Now, Year, Month and Day.043662d-java`Java 2D Array Examples`Use 2D arrays and jagged arrays. Initialize arrays and assign elements.`arraylist-java`Java ArrayList Examples`Use the ArrayList from java util ArrayList. Add strings and integers to ArrayLists.`lambda-java`Java Lambda Expressions`Use lambda expressions: create Functions, Suppliers and Consumers.`array-java`Java Array Examples`Use arrays: create and initialize string and int arrays. Use for to iterate over arrays.`boolean-java`Java Boolean Examples: If True, False`Use the boolean type and the values true and false. Test them with expressions and ifs.`cast-java`Java Cast and Convert Types`Cast variables, including objects and numbers. Arrays too are cast.`character-java`Java Character: isLetter, isDigit and toLowerCase`Use the Character class to test and transform chars. Call isLetter, isDigit and toLowerCase.`console-java`Java Console Examples: System out and System in`Use the System out println and print methods. Read console input with System in.`file-java`Java File: BufferedReader and FileReader`Handle files with BufferedReader and FileReader. Use readLine on text files.`for-java`Java For Loop Examples`Use the for-loop to iterate over numeric ranges and collections. Compare different loops.`hashmap-java`Java HashMap Examples`Use the HashMap class from java util HashMap. Perform fast key lookups with hashing.`hashset-java`Java HashSet Examples`Use the HashSet type as a set collection. Test for element existence and uniqueness.`if-java`Java if, else if, else Statements`Use the if-statement to test a variable. Apply the if-statement, else-if and else.`indexof-java`Java indexOf Examples`Use indexOf to search for characters and strings. Call indexOf in while-loops.`integer-java`Java Integer MAX VALUE, MIN and SIZE`Examine the MIN_VALUE and MAX_VALUE final ints on Integer and other classes. Use loop boundaries.`keyword-java`Java Keywords`Learn about keywords in the Java language. Review core parts of Java.`math-java`Java Math Class: java lang Math`Use the Math class, part of java lang Math. Call Math floor, ceil and other methods.`parseint-java`Java parseInt: Convert String to Int`Use parseInt to convert strings into ints. Test for valid strings and handle NumberFormatException.`process-java`Java Process start EXE: ProcessBuilder Examples`Use ProcessBuilder and Process start. Issue operating system commands with start.`random-java`Java Random Number Examples`Use the Random class and the Math random method. Generate random numbers.`regex-java`Java Regex Examples (Pattern matches)`Use Regex: create Pattern and Matcher. Text is tested with regular expressions.`duplicates-java`Java Remove Duplicates From ArrayList`Remove duplicates from an ArrayList of strings. Use a HashSet in removeDuplicates.`replace-java`Java Replace Strings: replaceFirst and replaceAll`Use replace, replaceFirst and replaceAll to swap strings, chars and CharSequences.`return-java`Java Return Examples: Expressions and Void`Use the return keyword in methods. Return multiple values, return expressions and fix errors.`sort-java`Java Sort Examples: Arrays sort, Comparable`Sort elements in arrays and other collections. Use Arrays sort and the Comparable interface.`split-java`Java Split Examples`Separate strings on a delimiter with the split method. Split lines of a file.`stream-java`Java Stream: Arrays stream and ArrayList stream`Explore the Stream class. Call Arrays stream and convert an ArrayList to a Stream.`string-java`Java String Class`Review the String class. Declare, concatenate and manipulate strings.`format-java`Java String format Examples: Numbers and Strings`Use String format to create strings with variables inserted in them. Handle integers and strings.`stringbuilder-java`Java StringBuilder Examples`Use the StringBuilder class to append Strings. Benchmark and test StringBuilder.`substring-java`Java Substring Examples, subSequence`Use the substring and subSequence methods. One or two indexes can be specified.`switch-java`Java Switch Examples: Case and Break`Use switch, and the case, default and break statements, to run code based on a variable.`vector-java`Java Vector Examples`Use the Vector type, from java util Vector. Vector is a resizable, thread-safe array.`while-java`Java While Loop Examples`Loop with while: this loop helps when proceeding until an unknown end condition is reached.043642d-python`Python 2D List Examples`Create a list of lists, or a 2D list. Append empty lists to a list and add elements.`list-python`Python List Examples`Use a list to store elements. Append to, remove from and loop over lists.`not-python`Python not: If Not True`Apply the not-operator to see if an expression is False. Invert the value of booleans.`array-python`Python Array Examples: Integer Performance`Use the array type to improve memory efficiency of numerical data.`built-in-python`Python Built In Functions`Review built-in functions in the Python language. These are used in many programs.`bytes-python`Python bytes, bytearray Examples (memoryview)`Use the bytes, bytearray and memoryview types. Represent data in an efficient way.`class-python`Python Class Examples: Init and Self`Use the class keyword. Call the init method to initialize a class.`console-python`Python Console Programs: Input and Print`Use the console window. Get input from the user and write with print statements.`convert-python`Python Convert Types`Perform conversions on objects. Convert tuples, strings, lists and dictionaries.`datetime-python`Python Datetime Methods: Date, Timedelta`Use the datetime module. Parses date strings and perform other useful tasks.`dictionary-python`Python Dictionary Examples`Use the dictionary: operate on dictionaries and test performance in programs.`error-python`Python Error: Try, Except and Raise`Handle errors: use the try, except and raise keywords. Use finally to always run code.`file-python`Python File Handling (with open, write)`Handle text files and use pickle. Read in the lines of a text file.`find-python`Python Find String: index and count`Use the find, index and count methods. Search strings in loops for substrings.`for-python`Python for: Loop Over String Characters`Iterate over the characters in a string with for. Use enumerate, reversed and range.`if-python`Python If Examples: Elif, Else`Use the if, elif and else-statements. Write expressions and nested ifs.`lambda-python`Python Lambda Expressions`Use lambda expressions. Pass a lambda expressions to another method.`len-python`Python Len (String Length)`Use the len method on strings. Len returns the length of a string, dictionary, list, set or tuple.`lower-python`Python Lower and Upper: Capitalize String`Use the lower, upper, islower and isupper methods. Call title and capitalize.`map-python`Python Map Examples (Use Lambda on Each Element)`Use the map built-in function. Map applies a lambda to each element.`math-python`Python Math Examples`Use math methods. Review methods like sqrt, math floor and math ceil.`random-python`Python Random Numbers: randint, random choice`Use the random module and the randint method. Call random choice on a list.`re-python`Python Re Match, Search Examples`Use regular expressions and the re module. Call match, search, split and findall.`sub-python`Python Re Sub, Subn Methods`Use the re sub and re subn methods to invoke a method for matching strings.`duplicates-python`Python Remove Duplicates From List`Use a set to remove duplicate elements from a list without changing the order of elements.`round-python`Python Round Up and Down (Math Round)`Call round to round numbers up and down. With math ceil a number is rounded up.`set-python`Python Set Examples`Use sets, set syntax and set methods. A set is similar to a dictionary but has no values.`slice-python`Python Slice Examples: Start, Stop and Step`Use the slice syntax on lists and strings. A slice has a start, stop and step.`sort-python`Python Sort Examples: Sorted List, Dictionary`Sort element: sort a list, a dictionary and use the sorted method with keys.`split-python`Python Split String Examples`Call the split method to separate strings. Use rsplit, splitlines and partition.`string-python`Python String`See a list of methods that can be used on strings. Review string literal syntax.`strip-python`Python Strip Examples`Use the strip, lstrip and rstrip methods. Handle whitespace and other characters.`substring-python`Python Substring Examples`Use slices on strings to take substrings. Slice syntax works as a substring method.`tuple-python`Python Tuple Examples`Use tuples to store separate values together. Pack, unpack and benchmark tuples.`while-python`Python while Loop Examples`Understand the while-loop. While continues until a terminating condition is met.032282d-ruby`Ruby 2D Array Examples`Use 2D arrays and jagged arrays. Nest arrays and access subarrays.`array-ruby`Ruby Array Examples`Use arrays: add elements, change elements and test arrays with loops and iterators.`iterator-ruby`Ruby Iterator: Times, Step Loops`Test and benchmark iterators. Use times, upto, downto, step and each in programs.`case-ruby`Ruby Case Examples: Ranges, Strings and Regexp`Use the case statement. Match values, and ranges of values, with this statement.`console-ruby`Ruby Console: Puts, Print and stdin`Use the console window. Call the puts, p, print and stdin readline methods.`convert-ruby`Ruby Convert Types: Arrays and Strings`Cast and converts types: use methods to convert strings, arrays and hashes.`datetime-ruby`Ruby DateTime Examples: require date`Use the DateTime class. Compute and manipulate dates and times.`exception-ruby`Ruby Exception Examples: Begin and Rescue`Handle exceptions. Use begin, rescue and ensure to enter protected regions.`file-ruby`Ruby File Handling: File and IO Classes`Handle files: open a file with File open and sequentially read in each line until eof.`format-ruby`Ruby Format String Examples`Use the format string syntax. See examples for formatting values in many ways.`hash-ruby`Ruby Hash Examples`Use the Hash class to store keys and values. Hash enables fast lookups.`if-ruby`Ruby If Examples: Elsif, Else and Unless`Use the if-statement, elsif and else. See the unless statement.`keyword-ruby`Ruby Keywords`Review a list of keywords in Ruby. These keywords are used in nearly all programs.`math-ruby`Ruby Math Examples: floor, ceil, round and truncate`Use mathematical functions like floor, ceil and truncate. Compute square roots.`nil-ruby`Ruby Nil Value Examples: NoMethodError`Test values against nil, with an if, to avoid errors like NoMethodError.`number-ruby`Ruby Number Examples: Integer, Float, zero and eql`Use numbers and the zero and eql methods. Convert strings into Integers and Floats.`rand-ruby`Ruby Random Number Generator: rand, srand`Generate random numbers with rand. Use srand to seed a random stream.`regexp-ruby`Ruby Regexp Match Method`Use the Regexp class, which processes text. Call the match and split methods.`duplicates-ruby`Ruby Remove Duplicates From Array`Use the uniq method to remove duplicate elements from arrays with minimal code.`set-ruby`Ruby Set Examples`Use the set collection. Add elements to sets and use include, merge and subset.`sort-ruby`Ruby Sort Arrays (Use Block Syntax)`Use the sort method. Sort with blocks, sort in descending order and sort in-place.`split-ruby`Ruby Split String Examples`Call the split method to separate strings. Use string and regular expression delimiters.`string-ruby`Ruby String Examples (each char, each line)`Use strings: create literals, manipulate strings and use each char and each line.`sub-ruby`Ruby Sub, gsub: Replace String`Use sub and gsub to replace strings. Regular expressions are used for complex replacements.`substring-ruby`Ruby Substring Examples`Get substrings with ranges and indexes. Regular expressions can be used to get substrings.`while-ruby`Ruby While, Until and For Loop Examples`Loop over ranges of numbers. See the while-loop, until-loop and other loops.033452d-scala`Scala 2D List, Array Examples: Array ofDim`Create a 2D list by nesting lists within a list. Call Array ofDim for a 2D array.`println-scala`Scala Console: println, printf and readLine`Use console functions like println and printf. Read lines from the console.`map-scala`Scala Map Examples`Use Maps to look up values with keys. Create a Map and invoke Map functions.`convert-scala`Scala Convert: String to Int, List and Array`Convert string values to Ints. Change Lists and Maps to strings.`exception-scala`Scala Exception Handling: Try, Catch and Throw`Handle exceptions with try, catch and throw. Use case to match exception types.`for-scala`Scala For to, until, while Loop Examples`Use the for-loop on a List. Loop over a range of values with the for-to syntax.`format-scala`Scala format and formatted Strings`Use the formatted and format methods on format strings to insert values in placeholders.`initialize-list-scala`Scala Initialize List: List newBuilder, List empty`Initialize Lists with operators and constructors. Use List empty and newBuilder.`keyword-scala`Scala Keywords`Review Scala keywords and language features. Browse links on these keywords.`list-scala`Scala List Examples`Use List to store Strings and Ints together. Access length and use the for-loop.`match-scala`Scala Match and Case (List Pattern Matching)`Use match with cases to test the value of a variable and return another value.`option-scala`Scala Option: None, get and getOrElse`Return optional values from a function with the Option class. Use None, isDefined, get and getOrElse.`range-scala`Scala Range Examples: Start, End and Step`Create a range with the to method. Use the by function to specify a step.`regex-scala`Scala Regex, R Examples: findFirstMatchIn`Use the Regex class to match patterns. Call findFirstMatchIn and other methods.`duplicates-scala`Scala Remove Duplicates From List: Distinct Example`Use the distinct function, along with map, to remove duplicate elements from lists.`set-scala`Scala Set Examples: contains, intersect`Create a Set to store unique elements in a collection. Use contains and intersect.`slice-scala`Scala Slice: Substring, List Slice`Use the slice function to create substrings and get slices of lists.`sorted-scala`Scala Sorted List Examples: Ordering Int`Use sorted, and Ordering, to sort an Int list in ascending and descending order.`split-scala`Scala Split String Examples`Call split to separate strings on delimiters. Use an Array for multiple delimiter characters.`string-scala`Scala String Examples: StringLike`Use strings and the StringLike functions to process strings. Call capitalize and get lines.`stringbuilder-scala`Scala StringBuilder Examples`Create a StringBuilder with newBuilder and use append to add strings to it. Call toString to get a string.`strip-scala`Scala Strip Strings: stripLineEnd and stripMargin`Use the stripLineEnd and stripMargin functions to remove characters from strings.`tuple-scala`Scala Tuple Examples (Return Multiple Values)`Use tuples to store multiple variables together. Return a tuple from a function.`var-scala`Scala Var and Val (Variables and Constants)`Create variables and constants with var and val. Fix the reassignment to val error.`vector-scala`Scala Vector Examples`Use Vector from scala collection immutable Vector. Add elements and use Lists with vectors.03387array-swift`Swift Array Examples, String Arrays`Use int and string arrays. Append to arrays, loop over elements and modify arrays.`convert-swift`Swift Convert String to Int Example`Convert Strings to Ints and Ints to Strings. Handle invalid string data and optionals.`2d-swift`Swift 2D Array Examples`Use 2D arrays: assign elements and loop over multidimensional arrays. See the syntax for 2D arrays.`dictionary-swift`Swift Dictionary Examples`Use a dictionary to look up values from keys. Add elements and loop over tuples with the for-in loop.`error-swift`Swift Error Handling: try, catch`Use the try and catch keywords to handle exceptions. Throw with a custom Error.`file-swift`Swift File (Read Text File Into String)`Use Foundation, NSString and the contentsofFile argument to read a text file into a string.`find-swift`Swift Find Strings: range of Example`Use range and contains to search for strings within other strings. Find a word in a string.`if-swift`Swift If, If Else Example`Use an if-else statement. Conditions in an if evaluate to true or false.`inout-swift`Swift inout Keyword: Func Example`Use the inout keyword for an argument in a func. Inout means an output parameter.`int-swift`Swift Int Examples: Int max, Int min`Use the Int type and the Int max and Int min properties. Test Ints with MemoryLayout.`keyword-swift`Swift Keywords`Review keywords in the Swift language. These keywords are used throughout Swift programs.`for-swift`Swift Loops: For Loop, Repeat and While Examples`Use the for-in loop and the enumerated method. See the while and repeat while loops.`lower-swift`Swift Lower, Uppercase and Capitalized Strings`Use the lowercased and uppercased methods. Capitalize words with capitalized.`math-swift`Swift Math: abs, sqrt and pow`Use math methods. Call abs, max, min, sqrt, floor, ceil and pow.`optional-swift`Swift Optional: Nil Examples`Use optional values. An optional may be nil, which means it has no value.`print-swift`Swift Print: Lines, Separator and Terminator`Use the print method to display strings and other values to the console.`property-swift`Swift Property Examples`Store values with properties. Use get, set, lazy and the willSet and didSet observers.`range-swift`Swift Range Examples (index, offsetBy)`Use ranges with startIndex and endIndex. Call the index func and specify offsetBy.`duplicates-swift`Swift Remove Duplicates From Array`Use funcs, and the filter method, to remove duplicate elements from arrays.`replace-swift`Swift Replace String Example`Call replaceSubrange to replace strings. Use replacingOccurrences and replacingCharacters.`sort-swift`Swift Sort String Arrays: Closure Examples`Sort arrays with the sort method. Use funcs and closures to compare Strings and Ints.`split-swift`Swift Split Strings Example (components)`Use components separatedBy to split a string into an array. Split with a string or characters.`string-swift`Swift String`Use strings and string literals. See a list of string methods that can be called.`length-swift`Swift String Length`Get the length of a string with the endIndex property. Loop over the chars based on indexes.`substring-swift`Swift Substring Examples`Get a substring from a string with a range. Use index, startIndex and offsetBy.`switch-swift`Swift Switch Statements: case, default and fallthrough`Use the switch statement with cases and the default and fallthrough keywords.04441cast-vbnet`VB NET Cast: TryCast, DirectCast Examples`Use TryCast and DirectCast. Handle invalid casts and view casting syntax.`array-vbnet`VB NET Array Examples, String Arrays`Create arrays and string arrays. Access array Length and use For Each.`list-vbnet`VB NET List Examples`Use the List type: add, remove and get elements from Lists. Lists resize when space is needed.`class-vbnet`VB NET Class Examples: MyClass, Friend Classes`Review Class types their syntax. Use the MyClass keyword and Friend classes.`console-vbnet`VB NET Console Write, WriteLine, ReadLine Examples`Use the Console: call the Console Write, WriteLine and ReadLine subs.`datatable-vbnet`VB NET DataTable Examples`Use DataTable to store data in memory from databases and other data sources.`datetime-vbnet`VB NET DateTime Examples`Use DateTime in programs. Access DateTime constructors and properties.`datetime-format-vbnet`VB NET DateTime Format Functions`Use DateTime format patterns. Call the ToString method with a format string.`dictionary-vbnet`VB NET Dictionary Examples`Use Dictionary and add keys and values. Call ContainsKey and TryGetValue to look up elements.`do-while-vbnet`VB NET Do While Loop`Use the Do While loop syntax. Increment and decrement in the Do While loops.`enum-vbnet`VB NET Enum Examples`Use Enum values to stores named and magic constants. Use if-statements with enums.`file-vbnet`VB NET File Handling`Handle files: in the System IO namespace, use StreamReader and StreamWriter.`for-vbnet`VB NET For Loop Examples`Use the For-loop. Create loops that increment, decrement and can be nested.`if-vbnet`VB NET If Then, ElseIf, Else Statement Examples`Use the If Then statement. See examples for the If, ElseIf, Else and End keywords.`indexof-vbnet`VB NET IndexOf Function`Call the IndexOf Function. IndexOf returns the index of a substring as an Integer.`parse-vbnet`VB NET Integer Parse: Convert String to Integer`Use the Integer Parse and TryParse Functions to convert Strings to Integers.`keyword-vbnet`VB NET Keywords`See the keywords in VB NET. Keywords are used in declarations and statements.`lambda-vbnet`VB NET Lambda Expressions`Create lambda expressions and pass them to other methods. Use the Function keyword.`linq-vbnet`VB NET LINQ Examples: Queries, Extensions`Use LINQ, a set of extensions to the language that enable queries.`nothing-vbnet`VB NET Nothing, IsNothing (Null)`Use Nothing and IsNothing. A reference that points to nothing can cause an Exception.`process-vbnet`VB NET Process Start Examples`Use the Process Start Function. Open Microsoft Word, web browsers and text files.`property-vbnet`VB NET Property Examples (Get, Set)`Use the Property keyword to improve program syntax. A property gets and sets values.`random-vbnet`VB NET Random Numbers`Use the Random class. Random has a Next Function and is often used as a field.`regex-vbnet`VB NET Regex Match Function`Use Regex from System Text RegularExpressions. Match Strings based on patterns.`replace-vbnet`VB NET Replace String Examples`Call the Replace Function. Change all instances of one substring to another and get a new String.`select-vbnet`VB NET Select Case Examples: Strings and Integers`Use the Select Case statement with integers, Chars and Strings. See a nested Select Case.`sort-vbnet`VB NET Sort Strings: Arrays and Lists`See examples for sorting. Use the Array Sort and List Sort Functions to sort arrays and Lists.`split-vbnet`VB NET Split String Examples`Separate strings on a value with the String Split function. Use Char and String delimiters.`string-vbnet`VB NET String`Use the String type: create, search and modify strings. Test string functions.`string-concat-vbnet`VB NET String Concat Example`Concat strings with the plus-operator or the String Concat Function.`format-vbnet`VB NET String Format Examples: String and Integer`Call the String Format Function with patterns. Insert numbers and values into strings.`stringbuilder-vbnet`VB NET StringBuilder Examples`Use the StringBuilder class to improve performance with String appends.`sub-vbnet`VB NET Sub Procedure Examples`Use the Sub keyword for a subroutine. See the syntax for parameters and comments.`substring-vbnet`VB NET Substring Examples`Use the Substring Function to get parts of strings. Review the arguments to Substring.`tolower-vbnet`VB NET ToLower and ToUpper: String Uppercase, Lowercase`Use the ToLower and ToUpper Functions on strings to change the cases of letters.