#g{cursor:default;color:#000}#g:hover{text-decoration:none}#T{background:#fe903c}#W,#B{margin:0 0 100px;flex-wrap:wrap}#A{font-weight:700;color:#06c;user-select:none;cursor:pointer}#z,#W{display:none}#B{display:flex}#A:hover,a:hover>b{text-decoration:underline}#B>a{flex:25%;font-size:83%;min-width:180px;padding:10px;color:#000}#B>#G{color:#fff;background:#787878}a{font-weight:normal}#C{background:0 0/contain no-repeat;float:left;margin-right:10px}@media(max-width:500px){#A{margin:6px 0;flex:50%}#C{max-width:70px;min-width:70px;max-height:70px;min-height:70px}#B>a{padding:4px}}@media(min-width:501px){#C{max-width:110px;min-width:110px;max-height:110px;min-height:110px}#A{flex:33%;max-width:33%}}`p5-`Written by Sam Allen, (Dot Net Perls). © 2007-2018 Sam Allen. All rights reserved.`C#,Go,Java,Python,Ruby,Scala,Swift,VB.NET`hdefaultcgoejavagpythonerubyfscalafswiftcvb`geHAab?IacBCabBBab:Hab9Dab:FabCE`array~C# Array Examples, String Arrays~Use string arrays: initialize them, loop over them, and access lengths and elements at indexes.~linq~C# LINQ Examples: System Linq and Extensions~Use extension methods, and query syntax, from the System Linq namespace.~list~C# List Examples~Use the List collection. A List is a dynamic array that grows as needed.~static~C# Static Method, Class and Constructor~Use the static keyword. Create static methods, static classes and static constructors.~2d~C# 2D Array Examples~Use 2D arrays: allocate them, loop over them and add to them. A for-loop iterates over 2D array elements.~async~C# Async, Await Examples (Task)~Use async and await keywords, along with a Task. Call an async method with await.~console~C# Console WriteLine (Print)~Call the Console WriteLine method. Print values like ints and strings to the screen.~convert-list-string~C# Convert List to String~Use the string Join method and StringBuilder to convert Lists and strings.~datatable~C# DataTable Examples~Use DataTable to store data in memory from databases and other data sources.~datetime~C# DateTime Examples~Compute date and time values. Get relative dates and call DateTime constructors and properties.~datetime-format~C# DateTime Format~Review DateTime format patterns. Call ToString with format codes like MMMM, dd and hh.~dictionary~C# Dictionary Examples~Use the Dictionary class from System Collections Generic. A Dictionary provides fast lookups.~enum~C# Enum Examples~Use enums to store named and magic constants. An enum can be used in collections, if and switch.~file~C# File Handling~Learn ways to handle files. Many methods from the System IO namespace are available.~for~C# For Loops~Use the for-loop. For includes an index value, a start and end, and has special syntax.~foreach~C# Foreach Loop Examples~Use the foreach-loop to make loops clearer. Other loops, like for and while, are compared.~ienumerable~C# IEnumerable Examples~Use the IEnumerable interface. IEnumerable things can be looped over with foreach.~if~C# if Statement: else if, else~Use the if, else-if and else statements to make logical tests in a method.~indexof~C# IndexOf Examples~Call the IndexOf method. IndexOf returns the first index of specified character or substring.~parse~C# int Parse, TryParse: Convert Strings to Integers~Convert strings into ints with the int Parse and int TryParse methods.~keyvaluepair~C# KeyValuePair Examples~Use KeyValuePair to loop over a Dictionary with foreach. KeyValuePair has 2 member fields.~keyword~C# Keywords~Review keywords from the C# language. Each keyword has a link to an example and a description.~lambda~C# Lambda Expressions~Use the lambda expression syntax to create function objects. Lambdas have arguments and return values.~path~C# Path Examples~Use the Path class. Path handles file locations in a consistent way, resolving common problems.~process~C# Process Start Examples~Create a Process to start external EXEs. Include the System Diagnostics namespace and call Process Start.~property~C# Property Examples (get, set)~Use properties and create them with the get and set keywords. A property is a method that gets or sets a value.~random~C# Random Number Examples~Get random numbers with the Random class. Random has a Next method and can be used as a field.~reflection~C# Reflection Examples~Learn about the System Reflection namespace. Use FieldInfo, and call GetMethod and GetProperties.~regex~C# Regex Match Examples: Regular Expressions~Use the Regex class and Regex Match. Review features from System Text RegularExpressions.~remove-duplicates-list~C# Remove Duplicates From List~Eliminate duplicate elements from a List. Invoke the Distinct method from System Linq.~replace~C# Replace String Examples~Use the Replace method to change all instances of one substring to another substring. Get the modified string.~sort~C# Sort Examples: Arrays and Lists~Sort arrays using Array Sort and Lists with Sort. Review the performance of sorting.~split~C# Split String Examples~Use the string Split method. Call Split with arguments to separate on newlines, spaces and words.~string~C# String~Explore string methods: create, search and change strings with built-in code.~format~C# String Format~Insert values into a string with string Format. Specify percentages, decimals and padding.~string-switch~C# String Switch Examples~Use a switch statement on a string for improved performance. String literal cases can be tested.~substring~C# Substring Examples~Use the Substring method with start and length ints. Substring gets parts of strings.~switch~C# Switch Examples~Use a switch statement to branch on a constant in an efficient way. Switch on value types and strings.~tuple~C# Tuple Examples~Create tuples to store immutable data. A tuple has multiple fields of different types.~while~C# While Loop Examples~Loop over numbers and indexes with the while-loop. This syntax can be used for infinite loops.~streamwriter~C# StreamWriter Example~Use StreamWriter from System IO to write text files. Place StreamWriter in using statements.~list-remove~C# List Remove, RemoveRange and RemoveAt~Use Remove, RemoveRange and RemoveAt on Lists. Delete elements by value and index.~stringbuilder~C# StringBuilder Examples~Improve string append performance with StringBuilder. Save allocations when building strings.~max~C# Max and Min: Get Highest or Lowest Element~Use Max and Min from System Linq. Get the highest or lowest elements.~datetime-parse~C# DateTime Parse: Convert String to DateTime~Handle strings containing dates with DateTime Parse. Convert a string to a DateTime.~sort-list~C# Sort List With Lambda, Comparison Method~Use lambda expressions and LINQ to sort elements in a List. Call List Sort.`map-go~Golang Map Examples (Get Value From Map, delete)~Use maps to provide lookups from keys to values. Get values and delete them.~2d-go~Golang 2D Slices and Arrays~Use 2D slices and arrays. Nest slices and arrays to create multiple dimensions.~array-go~Golang Array Examples~Use arrays with int and string elements. Iterate over an array with a for-loop.~built-in-go~Golang Built In Functions~Review built-in functions in Golang. See examples of how these built-ins are used.~bytes-go~Golang Bytes: Slices and Methods~Use byte slices and the bytes package. Manipulate, test and benchmark byte slices.~const-go~Golang Const, Var Examples: Iota~Use the const and var keywords. Generate constants with the iota enumerator.~flag-go~Golang flag, Command Line Int, String Examples~Use the flag package for command-line arguments. Pass ints and String arguments.~fmt-go~Golang fmt Println, Sprintf: Console Programs~Use the fmt package to write values to the console. Call Println and Sprintf.~for-go~Golang for Loop Examples: Foreach and While~Use the for-loop to iterate through numbers. Look at foreach and while loops.~func-go~Golang Func Examples~Create methods with the func keyword. See arguments and multiple return values.~if-go~Golang If, Else Statements~Use if, else if and else statements to test values. See correct syntax.~json-go~Golang JSON Example: Marshal, Unmarshal~Use the encoding/json library to convert Go objects to JSON. Call Marshal and Unmarshal.~math-go~Golang Math Module: math Abs, Pow~Perform mathematical computations with the math module. Call math Abs and math Pow.~parseint-go~Golang ParseInt Examples: Convert String to Int~Use the strconv package and the ParseInt and Atoi funcs. Convert strings to ints.~rand-go~Golang rand, crypto: Random Number Generators~Use the rand package and generate random numbers. Call rand Int and Seed.~file-go~Golang Read Text File: bufio, ioutil ReadAll Examples~Use bufio, NewScanner, Scan and Text to read the lines of a file. Call ioutil ReadAll.~regexp-go~Golang Regexp Examples: MatchString, MustCompile~Use the regexp package for regular expressions. Call MatchString and compile patterns.~replace-go~Golang Replace String Examples: Replacer, NewReplacer~Use strings Replace, in the strings package, to modify strings. Call NewReplacer.~slice-go~Golang Slice Examples (append, cap and make)~Use slices to store elements. Call the append, cap and make functions.~sort-go~Golang Sort Slice: Len, Less, Swap in Interface~Use the sort package and sort elements. Invoke the Strings and Sort methods.~split-go~Golang Split Examples (SplitAfter, SplitN)~Use Split from the strings package. Call SplitAfter and SplitN to separate strings.~convert-go~Golang strconv, Convert Int to String~Cast numeric types and convert values to strings. Perform map and slice conversions.~strings-go~Golang Strings~Explore the strings package. The methods in strings create, test and modify string data.~struct-go~Golang Struct Examples: Types and Pointers~Create structs to store fields and methods together. Use the new keyword.~substring-go~Golang Substring Examples (Rune Slices)~Use string slice syntax to take substrings. Take rune slices to handle more characters.~time-go~Golang Time: Now, Parse and Duration~Use the time package to get and modify times. Get Now, Year, Month and Day.~csv-go~Golang csv Examples: NewReader and ReadAll~This Go article shows the encoding-cvs package. It calls NewReader and reads records with Read.~index-go~Golang Index, LastIndex: strings Funcs~These Go example programs use the Index, LastIndex and IndexAny funcs. They search strings for substrings.~len-go~Golang Len (String Length)~These Go examples use the len built-in function to get string lengths. Len supports arrays, slices and maps.~duplicates-go~Golang Remove Duplicates From Slice~These Go programs remove duplicate elements from slices of ints and strings. They use maps and slices together.~switch-go~Golang Switch Examples: case, break and fallthrough~These Go examples use switch statements to test variables and return values.`arraylist-java~Java ArrayList Examples~This Java example page uses the ArrayList. It adds strings and integers and tests performance.~lambda-java~Java Lambda Expressions~Use lambda expressions: create Functions, Suppliers and Consumers.~2d-java~Java 2D Array Examples~Use 2D arrays and jagged arrays. Initialize arrays and assign elements.~array-java~Java Array Examples~Use arrays: create and initialize string and int arrays. Use for to iterate over arrays.~boolean-java~Java Boolean Examples: If True, False~Use the boolean type and the values true and false. Test them with expressions and ifs.~cast-java~Java Cast and Convert Types~Cast variables, including objects and numbers. Arrays too are cast.~character-java~Java Character: isLetter, isDigit and toLowerCase~Use the Character class to test and transform chars. Call isLetter, isDigit and toLowerCase.~console-java~Java Console Examples: System out and System in~Use the System out println and print methods. Read console input with System in.~file-java~Java File: BufferedReader and FileReader~Handle files with BufferedReader and FileReader. Use readLine on text files.~for-java~Java For Loop Examples~Use the for-loop to iterate over numeric ranges and collections. Compare different loops.~hashmap-java~Java HashMap Examples~Use the HashMap class from java util HashMap. Perform fast key lookups with hashing.~if-java~Java if, else if, else Statements~Use the if-statement to test a variable. Apply the if-statement, else-if and else.~indexof-java~Java indexOf Examples~Use indexOf to search for characters and strings. Call indexOf in while-loops.~integer-java~Java Integer MAX VALUE, MIN and SIZE~Examine the MIN_VALUE and MAX_VALUE final ints on Integer and other classes. Use loop boundaries.~keyword-java~Java Keywords~Learn about keywords in the Java language. Review core parts of Java.~math-java~Java Math Class: java lang Math~Use the Math class, part of java lang Math. Call Math floor, ceil and other methods.~parseint-java~Java parseInt: Convert String to Int~Use parseInt to convert strings into ints. Test for valid strings and handle NumberFormatException.~process-java~Java Process start EXE: ProcessBuilder Examples~Use ProcessBuilder and Process start. Issue operating system commands with start.~random-java~Java Random Number Examples~Use the Random class and the Math random method. Generate random numbers.~regex-java~Java Regex Examples (Pattern matches)~Use Regex: create Pattern and Matcher. Text is tested with regular expressions.~duplicates-java~Java Remove Duplicates From ArrayList~Remove duplicates from an ArrayList of strings. Use a HashSet in removeDuplicates.~replace-java~Java Replace Strings: replaceFirst and replaceAll~Use replace, replaceFirst and replaceAll to swap strings, chars and CharSequences.~return-java~Java Return Examples: Expressions and Void~Use the return keyword in methods. Return multiple values, return expressions and fix errors.~sort-java~Java Sort Examples: Arrays sort, Comparable~Sort elements in arrays and other collections. Use Arrays sort and the Comparable interface.~split-java~Java Split Examples~Separate strings on a delimiter with the split method. Split lines of a file.~stream-java~Java Stream: Arrays stream and ArrayList stream~Explore the Stream class. Call Arrays stream and convert an ArrayList to a Stream.~string-java~Java String Class~Review the String class. Declare, concatenate and manipulate strings.~format-java~Java String format Examples: Numbers and Strings~Use String format to create strings with variables inserted in them. Handle integers and strings.~stringbuilder-java~Java StringBuilder Examples~Use the StringBuilder class to append Strings. Benchmark and test StringBuilder.~substring-java~Java Substring Examples, subSequence~Use the substring and subSequence methods. One or two indexes can be specified.~vector-java~Java Vector Examples~Use the Vector type, from java util Vector. Vector is a resizable, thread-safe array.~while-java~Java While Loop Examples~Loop with while: this loop helps when proceeding until an unknown end condition is reached.~hashset-java~Java HashSet Examples~This Java example uses the HashSet type, which is a set collection. It tests for element existence and for uniqueness.~switch-java~Java Switch Examples: Case and Break~This Java article uses the switch statement. It shows the case, default and break statements.`list-python~Python List Examples~Use a list to store elements. Append to, remove from and loop over lists.~2d-python~Python 2D List Examples~Create a list of lists, or a 2D list. Append empty lists to a list and add elements.~array-python~Python Array Examples: Integer Performance~Use the array type to improve memory efficiency of numerical data.~built-in-python~Python Built In Functions~Review built-in functions in the Python language. These are used in many programs.~bytes-python~Python bytes, bytearray Examples (memoryview)~Use the bytes, bytearray and memoryview types. Represent data in an efficient way.~class-python~Python Class Examples: Init and Self~Use the class keyword. Call the init method to initialize a class.~console-python~Python Console Programs: Input and Print~Use the console window. Get input from the user and write with print statements.~convert-python~Python Convert Types~Perform conversions on objects. Convert tuples, strings, lists and dictionaries.~datetime-python~Python Datetime Methods: Date, Timedelta~Use the datetime module. Parses date strings and perform other useful tasks.~dictionary-python~Python Dictionary Examples~Use the dictionary: operate on dictionaries and test performance in programs.~error-python~Python Error: Try, Except and Raise~Handle errors: use the try, except and raise keywords. Use finally to always run code.~file-python~Python File Handling (with open, write)~Handle text files and use pickle. Read in the lines of a text file.~for-python~Python for: Loop Over String Characters~Use the for-loop to iterate over the characters in a string. Us enumerate, reversed and range.~if-python~Python If Examples: Elif, Else~Use the if, elif and else-statements. Write expressions and nested ifs.~lambda-python~Python Lambda Expressions~Use lambda expressions. Pass a lambda expressions to another method.~lower-python~Python Lower and Upper: Capitalize String~Use the lower, upper, islower and isupper methods. Call title and capitalize.~map-python~Python Map Examples (Use Lambda on Each Element)~Use the map built-in function. Map applies a lambda to each element.~math-python~Python Math Examples~Use math methods. Review methods like sqrt, math floor and math ceil.~random-python~Python Random Numbers: randint, random choice~Use the random module and the randint method. Call random choice on a list.~re-python~Python Re Match, Search Examples~Use regular expressions and the re module. Call match, search, split and findall.~sub-python~Python Re Sub, Subn Methods~Use the re sub and re subn methods to invoke a method for matching strings.~round-python~Python Round Up and Down (Math Round)~Call round to round numbers up and down. With math ceil a number is rounded up.~slice-python~Python Slice Examples: Start, Stop and Step~Use the slice syntax on lists and strings. A slice has a start, stop and sometimes a step value.~sort-python~Python Sort Examples: Sorted List, Dictionary~Sort element: sort a list, a dictionary and use the sorted method with keys.~split-python~Python Split String Examples~Call the split method to separate strings. Use rsplit, splitlines and partition.~string-python~Python String~See a list of methods that can be used on strings. Review string literal syntax.~substring-python~Python Substring Examples~Use slices on strings to take substrings. Slice syntax works as a substring method.~tuple-python~Python Tuple Examples~Use tuples to store separate values together. Pack, unpack and benchmark tuples.~while-python~Python while Loop Examples~Understand the while-loop. While continues until a terminating condition is met.~find-python~Python Find String: index and count~These Python examples use the find, index and count methods. They search strings in loops for substrings.~len-python~Python Len (String Length)~This Python article explores the len method on strings. Len returns the length of a string, dictionary, list, set or tuple.~duplicates-python~Python Remove Duplicates From List~This Python example removes duplicate elements from a list. It does not change the order of elements.~set-python~Python Set Examples~These Python programs show sets, set syntax and set methods. A set is similar to a dictionary but has no values.~strip-python~Python Strip Examples~This Python article uses the strip, lstrip and rstrip methods. It handles whitespace and other character types.`iterator-ruby~Ruby Iterator: Times, Step Loops~Test and benchmark iterators. Use times, upto, downto, step and each in programs.~2d-ruby~Ruby 2D Array Examples~Use 2D arrays and jagged arrays. Nest arrays and access subarrays.~array-ruby~Ruby Array Examples~Use arrays: add elements, change elements and test arrays with loops and iterators.~case-ruby~Ruby Case Examples: Ranges, Strings and Regexp~Use the case statement. Match values, and ranges of values, with this statement.~console-ruby~Ruby Console: Puts, Print and stdin~Use the console window. Call the puts, p, print and stdin readline methods.~convert-ruby~Ruby Convert Types: Arrays and Strings~Cast and converts types: use methods to convert strings, arrays and hashes.~datetime-ruby~Ruby DateTime Examples: require date~Use the DateTime class. Compute and manipulate dates and times.~exception-ruby~Ruby Exception Examples: Begin and Rescue~Handle exceptions. Use begin, rescue and ensure to enter protected regions.~file-ruby~Ruby File Handling: File and IO Classes~Handle files: open a file with File open and sequentially read in each line until eof.~format-ruby~Ruby Format String Examples~Use the format string syntax. See examples for formatting values in many ways.~hash-ruby~Ruby Hash Examples~Use the Hash class to store keys and values. Hash enables fast lookups.~if-ruby~Ruby If Examples: Elsif, Else and Unless~Use the if-statement, elsif and else. See the unless statement.~keyword-ruby~Ruby Keywords~Review a list of keywords in Ruby. These keywords are used in nearly all programs.~math-ruby~Ruby Math Examples: floor, ceil, round and truncate~Use mathematical functions like floor, ceil and truncate. Compute square roots.~number-ruby~Ruby Number Examples: Integer, Float, zero and eql~Use numbers and the zero and eql methods. Convert strings into Integers and Floats.~rand-ruby~Ruby Random Number Generator: rand, srand~Generate random numbers with rand. Use srand to seed a random stream.~regexp-ruby~Ruby Regexp Match Method~Use the Regexp class, which processes text. Call the match and split methods.~sort-ruby~Ruby Sort Arrays (Use Block Syntax)~Use the sort method. Sort with blocks, sort in descending order and sort in-place.~split-ruby~Ruby Split String Examples~Call the split method to separate strings. Use string and regular expression delimiters.~string-ruby~Ruby String Examples (each char, each line)~Use strings: create literals, manipulate strings and use each char and each line.~sub-ruby~Ruby Sub, gsub: Replace String~Use sub and gsub to replace strings. Regular expressions are used for complex replacements.~substring-ruby~Ruby Substring Examples~Get substrings with ranges and indexes. Regular expressions can be used to get substrings.~while-ruby~Ruby While, Until and For Loop Examples~Loop over ranges of numbers. See the while-loop, until-loop and other loop constructs.~nil-ruby~Ruby Nil Value Examples: NoMethodError~This Ruby article tests against nil. It shows errors a nil object can cause and how to avoid those errors.~duplicates-ruby~Ruby Remove Duplicates From Array~This Ruby example removes duplicate elements from arrays. It uses the uniq method.~set-ruby~Ruby Set Examples~This Ruby article uses the set collection. It adds elements to sets and uses many other set methods.`map-scala~Scala Map Examples~Use Maps to look up values with keys. A Map is created and Map functions are used.~2d-scala~Scala 2D List, 2D Array Examples: Array ofDim~Create a 2D list by nesting lists within a list. Call Array ofDim for a 2D array.~println-scala~Scala Console: println, printf and readLine Examples~Use console functions like println and printf. Read lines from the console.~convert-scala~Scala Convert: String to Int, List and Array~Convert string values to Ints. Change Lists and Maps to strings.~exception-scala~Scala Exception Handling: Try, Catch and Throw~Handle exceptions with try, catch and throw. Use case to match exception types.~for-scala~Scala For to, until, while Loop Examples~Use the for-loop on a List. Loop over a range of values with the for-to syntax.~format-scala~Scala format and formatted Strings~Use the formatted and format methods on format strings to insert values in placeholders.~keyword-scala~Scala Keywords~Review Scala keywords and language features. Browse links on these keywords.~list-scala~Scala List Examples~Use List to store Strings and Ints together. Access length and use the for-loop.~match-scala~Scala Match and Case (List Pattern Matching)~Use match with cases to test the value of a variable and return another value.~option-scala~Scala Option: None, get and getOrElse~Return optional values from a function with the Option class. Use None, isDefined, get and getOrElse.~regex-scala~Scala Regex, R Examples: findFirstMatchIn~Use the Regex class to match patterns. Call findFirstMatchIn and other methods.~slice-scala~Scala Slice: Substring, List Slice~Use the slice function to create substrings and get slices of lists.~sorted-scala~Scala Sorted List Examples: Ordering Int~Use sorted, and Ordering, to sort an Int list in ascending and descending order.~split-scala~Scala Split String Examples~Call split to separate strings on delimiters. Use an Array for multiple delimiter characters.~string-scala~Scala String Examples: StringLike~Use strings and the StringLike functions to process strings. Call capitalize and get lines.~stringbuilder-scala~Scala StringBuilder Examples~Create a StringBuilder with newBuilder and use append to add strings to it. Call toString to get a string.~tuple-scala~Scala Tuple Examples (Return Multiple Values)~Use tuples to store multiple variables together. Return a tuple from a function.~var-scala~Scala Var and Val (Variables and Constants)~Create variables and constants with var and val. Fix the reassignment to val error.~vector-scala~Scala Vector Examples~Use Vector from scala collection immutable Vector. Add elements and use Lists with vectors.~initialize-list-scala~Scala Initialize List: List newBuilder, List empty~This Scala example page initializes Lists with operators and constructors. It uses List empty and List newBuilder.~range-scala~Scala Range Examples: Start, End and Step~This Scala example creates a range with to and uses ranges. It uses the by function to specify a step.~duplicates-scala~Scala Remove Duplicates From List: Distinct Example~This Scala article removes duplicate elements from lists with the distinct function.~set-scala~Scala Set Examples: contains, intersect~This Scala example uses the Set to store unique elements in a collection. It uses contains and tests sets.~strip-scala~Scala Strip Strings: stripLineEnd and stripMargin~This Scala article uses the stripLineEnd and stripMargin functions to remove characters from strings. It handles prefixes and suffixes.`2d-swift~Swift 2D Array Examples~Use 2D arrays: assign elements and loop over multidimensional arrays. See the syntax for 2D arrays.~array-swift~Swift Array Examples, String Arrays~Use int and string arrays. Append to arrays, loop over elements and modify arrays.~convert-swift~Swift Convert String to Int Example~Convert Strings to Ints and Ints to Strings. Handle invalid string data and optionals.~dictionary-swift~Swift Dictionary Examples~Use a dictionary to look up values from keys. Add elements and loop over tuples with the for-in loop.~error-swift~Swift Error Handling: try, catch~Use the try and catch keywords to handle exceptions. Throw with a custom Error.~file-swift~Swift File (Read Text File Into String)~Use Foundation, NSString and the contentsofFile argument to read a text file into a string.~if-swift~Swift If, If Else Example~Use an if-else statement. Conditions in an if evaluate to true or false.~inout-swift~Swift inout Keyword: Func Example~Use the inout keyword for an argument in a func. Inout means an output parameter.~int-swift~Swift Int Examples: Int max, Int min~Use the Int type and the Int max and Int min properties. Test Ints with MemoryLayout.~keyword-swift~Swift Keywords~Review keywords in the Swift language. These keywords are used throughout Swift programs.~for-swift~Swift Loops: For Loop, Repeat and While Examples~Use the for-in loop and the enumerated method. See the while and repeat while loops.~lower-swift~Swift Lower, Uppercase and Capitalized Strings~Use the lowercased and uppercased methods. Capitalize words with capitalized.~math-swift~Swift Math: abs, sqrt and pow~Use math methods. Call abs, max, min, sqrt, floor, ceil and pow.~optional-swift~Swift Optional: Nil Examples~Use optional values. An optional may be nil, which means it has no value.~print-swift~Swift Print: Lines, Separator and Terminator~Use the print method to display strings and other values to the console.~property-swift~Swift Property Examples~Store values with properties. Use get, set, lazy and the willSet and didSet observers.~replace-swift~Swift Replace String Example~Call replaceSubrange to replace strings. Use replacingOccurrences and replacingCharacters.~sort-swift~Swift Sort String Arrays: Closure Examples~Sort arrays with the sort method. Use funcs and closures to compare Strings and Ints.~split-swift~Swift Split Strings Example (components)~Use components separatedBy to split a string into a string array. Splits with a string or characters.~string-swift~Swift String~Use strings and string literals. See a list of string methods that can be called.~substring-swift~Swift Substring Examples~Get a substring from a string with a range. Use index, startIndex and offsetBy.~find-swift~Swift Find Strings: range of Example~These Swift examples use the range and contains methods to search for strings within other strings. They find a word in a string.~range-swift~Swift Range Examples (index, offsetBy)~These Swift examples use ranges and test startIndex and endIndex. They use the index func with offsetBy.~duplicates-swift~Swift Remove Duplicates From Array~This Swift article removes duplicate elements from arrays. It uses funcs and the filter method.~length-swift~Swift String Length~This Swift example gets the length of a string with the endIndex property. It loops over the chars based on indexes in a string.~switch-swift~Swift Switch Statements: case, default and fallthrough~This Swift example uses the switch statement with cases. It shows the default and fallthrough keywords.`list-vbnet~VB NET List Examples~Use the List type: add, remove and get elements from Lists. Lists resize when space is needed.~array-vbnet~VB NET Array Examples, String Arrays~Use arrays and string arrays. An array stores many elements of one type together.~cast-vbnet~VB NET Cast: TryCast, DirectCast Examples~Use TryCast and DirectCast. Handle invalid casts and view casting syntax.~class-vbnet~VB NET Class Examples: MyClass, Friend Classes~Review Class types their syntax. Use the MyClass keyword and Friend classes.~console-vbnet~VB NET Console Write, WriteLine, ReadLine Examples~Use the Console type. Call the Console Write, WriteLine and ReadLine subs.~datatable-vbnet~VB NET DataTable Examples~Use the DataTable type. DataTable stores data in memory from databases.~datetime-vbnet~VB NET DateTime Examples~Use DateTime in programs. Access DateTime constructors and properties.~datetime-format-vbnet~VB NET DateTime Format Functions~Use DateTime format patterns. Call the ToString method with a format string.~dictionary-vbnet~VB NET Dictionary Examples~Use Dictionary and add keys and values. Call ContainsKey and TryGetValue to look up elements.~do-while-vbnet~VB NET Do While Loop~Use the Do While loop syntax. Increment and decrement in the Do While loops.~enum-vbnet~VB NET Enum Examples~Use Enum values to stores named and magic constants. Use if-statements with enums.~file-vbnet~VB NET File Handling~Handle files: in the System IO namespace, use StreamReader and StreamWriter.~for-vbnet~VB NET For Loop Examples~Use the For-loop. Create loops that increment, decrement and can be nested.~if-vbnet~VB NET If Then, ElseIf, Else Statement Examples~Use the If Then statement. See examples for the If, ElseIf, Else and End keywords.~indexof-vbnet~VB NET IndexOf Function~Call the IndexOf Function. IndexOf returns the index of a substring as an Integer.~parse-vbnet~VB NET Integer Parse: Convert String to Integer~Use the Integer Parse and TryParse Functions to convert Strings to Integers.~keyword-vbnet~VB NET Keywords~See the keywords in VB NET. Keywords are used in declarations and statements.~lambda-vbnet~VB NET Lambda Expressions~Create lambda expressions and pass them to other methods. Use the Function keyword.~linq-vbnet~VB NET LINQ Examples: Queries, Extensions~Use LINQ, a set of extensions to the language that enable queries.~nothing-vbnet~VB NET Nothing, IsNothing (Null)~Use Nothing and IsNothing. A reference that points to nothing can cause an Exception.~process-vbnet~VB NET Process Start Examples~Use the Process Start Function. Open Microsoft Word, web browsers and text files.~property-vbnet~VB NET Property Examples (Get, Set)~Use the Property keyword to improve program syntax. A property gets and sets values.~random-vbnet~VB NET Random Numbers~Use the Random class. Random has a Next Function and is often used as a field.~regex-vbnet~VB NET Regex Match Function~Use Regex from System Text RegularExpressions. Match Strings based on patterns.~replace-vbnet~VB NET Replace String Examples~Call the Replace Function. Change all instances of one substring to another and get a new String.~select-vbnet~VB NET Select Case Examples: Strings and Integers~Use the Select Case statement with integers, Chars and Strings. See a nested Select Case.~sort-vbnet~VB NET Sort Strings: Arrays and Lists~See examples for sorting. Use the Array Sort and List Sort Functions to sort arrays and Lists.~split-vbnet~VB NET Split String Examples~Separate strings on a value with the String Split function. Use Char and String delimiters.~string-vbnet~VB NET String~Use the String type: create, search and modify strings. Test string functions.~string-concat-vbnet~VB NET String Concat Example~Concat strings with the plus-operator or the String Concat Function.~format-vbnet~VB NET String Format Examples: String and Integer~Call the String Format Function with patterns. Insert numbers and values into strings.~stringbuilder-vbnet~VB NET StringBuilder Examples~Use the StringBuilder class to improve performance with String appends.~sub-vbnet~VB NET Sub Procedure Examples~Use the Sub keyword, which stands for subroutine. Parameters and comments are shown.~substring-vbnet~VB NET Substring Examples~Use the Substring Function to get parts of strings. Review the arguments to Substring.~tolower-vbnet~VB NET ToLower and ToUpper: String Uppercase, Lowercase~Use the ToLower and ToUpper Functions on the String type to change the cases of letters.