Value:And finally we have the Value() Function, which returns an expression based on a field.
New:In the Main entry point, an instance of Example is created and Value() is invoked. An Example now exists on the managed heap.
Private, Public:A private member cannot be accessed outside the class. A public one, however, can be externally called.
Based on: .NET 4.5 VB.NET program that uses Class Class Example Private _value As Integer Public Sub New() _value = 2 End Sub Public Function Value() As Integer Return _value * 2 End Function End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim x As Example = New Example() Console.WriteLine(x.Value()) End Sub End Module Output 4
Here:This example uses a formal argument in the Class constructor (Sub New). It receives the String and stores it in the field.
Tip:Often classes will have argument validation—for example, a method could reject certain String arguments.
VB.NET program that uses MyClass Class Perl Private _name As String Public Sub New(ByVal name As String) MyClass._name = name Console.WriteLine(MyClass._name) Console.WriteLine(name) Console.WriteLine(_name) End Sub End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim p As Perl = New Perl(
"Sam") End Sub End Module Output Sam Sam Sam
Class A:Let's begin by looking at Class A: this class contains a field (_value) as well as a Sub (Display()).
Class B, C:Class B and Class C both use the Inherits keyword and are derived from Class A. They provide their own constructors (New).
Tip:You can see the New B() and New C() will do slightly different things when called.
VB.NET program that uses Inherits keyword Class A Public _value As Integer Public Sub Display() Console.WriteLine(_value) End Sub End Class Class B : Inherits A Public Sub New(ByVal value As Integer) MyBase._value = value End Sub End Class Class C : Inherits A Public Sub New(ByVal value As Integer) MyBase._value = value * 2 End Sub End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim b As B = New B(
5) b.Display() Dim c As C = New C( 5) c.Display() End Sub End Module Output 5 10
Tip:This eliminates any possible ambiguity between fields. Two classes can have fields with identical names.
Thus:When b.Display() and c.Display() are called, the A.Display Sub is invoked.
Meanwhile:A base class is a core template of data and functionality. Base classes are not the same as interfaces.
Note:With Inherits, we implement complex object models that can closely represent, in a declarative way, a type framework.
And:A MustInherit Class is essentially a template that is part of the classes that inherit from it.MustInherit
Tip:A Public Shared field can be used in the same way as a global variable. This is useful for storing settings.Shared
VB.NET program that uses Shared field Class Test Public Shared _v As Integer End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() Test._v = 1 Console.WriteLine(Test._v) Test._v = 2 Console.WriteLine(Test._v) End Sub End Module Output 1 2
VB.NET program that uses Shared Sub Class Test Public Shared Sub Write() Console.WriteLine("Shared Sub called") End Sub End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() Test.Write() End Sub End Module Output Shared Sub called
Nothing:We compare references to Nothing. The "Is" and "IsNot" operators are most often used with the Nothing constant.
Here:In this example, we see how "IsNot Nothing" and "Is Nothing" are evaluated with a local variable.
Tip:This pattern of code is sometimes useful. It helps if you are not sure the variable is set to something.
VB.NET program that uses Is, IsNot operators Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim value As String = "cat" ' Check if it is NOT Nothing. If value IsNot Nothing Then Console.WriteLine(1) End If ' Change to Nothing. value = Nothing ' Check if it IS Nothing. If value Is Nothing Then Console.WriteLine(2) End If ' This isn't reached. If value IsNot Nothing Then Console.WriteLine(3) End If End Sub End Module Output 1 2
Note:These are most commonly used with the Nothing constant. But any two references can be compared.
And:The result depends on the memory locations—not the object data the references point to.
VB.NET that uses Partial Module Module1 Partial Class Test Public Sub X() Console.WriteLine(
"X") End Sub End Class Partial Class Test Public Sub Y() Console.WriteLine( "Y") End Sub End Class Sub Main() ' Invoke methods on the partial class. Dim t As Test = New Test() t.X() t.Y() End Sub End Module Output X Y
Here:We specify that Display() is a Friend Sub. So it is Public inside the assembly, but not available outside.
VB.NET that uses Friend Class Item Friend Sub Display() Console.WriteLine(
"Friend Class used") End Sub End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() ' The Display Sub is public if we are in the same assembly. Dim local As Item = New Item() local.Display() End Sub End Module Output Friend Class used
Equals:This compares the contents of two objects. Implementations from derived classes are used.
GetType:This returns a Type object based on the type of the current object. GetType is similar to VarType.
GetHashCode:Returns a hash code integer based on the content of the instance. Derived implementations are often present.
ToString:Converts an Object to a string representation. The exact string returned varies by implementation.
VB.NET that uses Object Class Example ' An empty Example class: it automatically inherits from Object. End Class Module Module1 Sub Main() ' Create instance of the Example class. Dim x As Example = New Example() ' The class inherits from Object, so we can cast it to an Object. Dim y As Object = x ' ... This method is from Object. Console.WriteLine(y.GetHashCode()) ' When we call GetHashCode, the implementation from Object is used. Console.WriteLine(x.GetHashCode()) End Sub End Module Output 46104728 46104728